Last week, President Trump named Heritage’s own election integrity expert, Hans von Spakovsky, to his newly formed voter fraud probe.

Initiated by an executive order earlier this summer, the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity was created to investigate instances of voter fraud in the 2016 general election. According to President Trump, the investigation will look into fraud amongst those who are illegal, those who are dead but still registered, and those who are registered in multiple states.

After eight years of the Obama administration’s blatant refusal to enforce federal election integrity laws, it is time not only to enforce but to gain a deeper understanding of just how widespread this fraud is.

According to a Heritage report written by von Spakovsky and John Fund:

This refusal to enforce the law came despite a 2012 study from the Pew Center on the States estimating that one out of every eight voter registrations is inaccurate, out-of-date or a duplicate. About 2.8 million people are registered in more than one state, according to the study, and 1.8 million registered voters are dead. In most places it’s easy to vote under the names of such people with little risk of detection…

Our honor system for voting doesn’t work. We don’t know how big of a problem voter fraud really is because no systematic effort has ever been made to investigate it.  But the public doesn’t think it’s as insignificant as the media insists.

Read von Spakovsky and Fund’s full analysis of the significance of the voter fraud probe>>

And as this article from The Hill notes:

When The Hill reached out to the Trump transition team in November to ask for information backing up Trump’s claim that he would have “won the popular vote if you deduct the millions of people who voted illegally,” a transition official sent The Hill a document that cited von Spakovsky’s research among others.

Read the full article>>

The appointment of von Spakovsky is a testament to the extensive work he has done throughout his career, specializing in voting and election issues including campaign finance reform, voter fraud, and election administration. A former Commissioner at the Federal Election Commission and Department of Justice official, von Spakovsky currently runs the Election Law Reform Initiative at Heritage.

Thanks to your support, our experts like von Spakovsky continue to research and promote conservative principles while achieving positions of high visibility.

Read more of von Spakovsky’s work on The Heritage Foundation website.

How would you crack down on voter fraud in the United States?

Comments (81)

Mary Spicer - July 7, 2017

Send evaluators to each state!

Bill Butterworth - July 7, 2017

Require the states to upgrade the technology used in the election process. Federal grants might be required for this. I’m sure the NSA could help with this problem if needed.

Require photo IDs at the poll – almost all the states have a tamper-proof driver’s license already. For those who don’t drive, provide them with a tamper-proof photo ID when they register to vote.

Jerry Metcalf - July 7, 2017

With a iron fist and withhold fed funds.

Ananta Gopalan - July 7, 2017

Heritage Foundation should offer to buy voter rolls data at the States’ refusing to hand over their rolls. Then, hand them over to the Federal commission.

Trudy Slater - July 7, 2017

Voter ID for citizens. Prevent CA from giving illegals drivers licences that are misused. Support investigations of voter fraud.

Bob Green - July 7, 2017

Start by requiring each state to clean up their voter rolls – removing the deceased and those who have moved out of the jurisdiction. Send in federal teams if the state refuses to cooperate. A photo ID should be required, and it should include biometrics too…like India and Mexico use to preclude voter fraud. “ONE identifiable and identified individual who is also eligible to cast a ballot in the election being conducted equals ONE legitimate voter.” — Me

Harley Hunter - July 7, 2017

It is an absolute must that tamper proof photo IDs be required. You certainly need it when you fly, drive a car, legally buy booze, etc,etc.
The lunacy of the left on this issue is only cuz they want to rig the vote for the democrats, something they have repeatedly done for years & we all know it!

Larry Dunham - July 7, 2017

Require voter registration to end 7 days prior to the elections. Photo ID ie pass port, state ID, etc and item showing current address. It is easier to prevent voter fraud than it is to find it.

Jeff Howard - July 7, 2017

Valid ID, address verification, and sworn statement regarding eligibility to vote; finally prosecution of those inelegible to vote, with hefty fines..

Bob Green - July 7, 2017

Recently, Judicial Watch sent out a Special Report on the voter fraud crisis in the U. S. It included a 20-page transcript of a panel discussion that included Mr. Spakovski as one of the panelists. It is a very interesting read, but I don’t know if it’s available on the web.

Jeanie Artis Adams - July 7, 2017

Send auditors to every state. Get ALL the dead, illegal immigrants and impostors off the rolls.

Bill Butterworth said it much better than I could. Thanks Bill!

Jane Cox - July 7, 2017

Voters show picture ID.
Review past voting lists to mark off all dead people and illegal voters.

Ronald Stokes - July 7, 2017

a picture ID with valid proof of citizenship

Bill Coates - July 7, 2017

Post office address changes should be sent to county clerks monthly, for use in updating voter rolls. Obituaries are less useful, no addresses, similar names can cause confusion and need research.
If the voter rolls are clean, fake ID’s are less of a problem.

Ken Wicker - July 7, 2017

All states should copy word for word Indiana voter ID law already determined to by valid by the Supreme Court. Next, all drivers licenses for felons and non-citizens are required to have a bright orange background. Finally, all persons involved of voter fraud, or tampering of any kind such as invalid registrations etc, will lose their voting rights forever and they can never be reinstated by any court. Also, they can never receive any government benefits of any kind forever regardless of their need.

James T Bryson - July 7, 2017

Please be a bulldog for the American people.

When the POTUS encourages illegal aliens and voter fraud, both areas feel protected and entitled. 2009-2016 was a period of fraud and lawlessness. Stand up for an honest disclosure by the states.

Mark Anglin - July 7, 2017

If President Trump accomplishes nothing else, I think this is the most important. The power in America’s government is supposed to belong to the people, and the people’s only access to this power is through the vote. It simply must represent the actual will of the people. Early voting and absentee voting are especially suspect to me. Perhaps registered voters should be sent a voting form, without which the burden of proof of eligibility rests with them. Positive identification is not too much to ask of a citizen, either.

Richard Singletary - July 7, 2017


Howard Fechtner - July 7, 2017

On conviction of voter fraud, one year in federal prison and $5000.00 fine. Second offence, five years in federal prison, $20,000.00 fine.

Isaac Ocansey - July 7, 2017

We need to crack down on voter fraud because our elections needs to be fair and just. By justifying elections we lower taxes, gain access to better healthcare with reduce premium and create an energized environment void of an unwanted health disparity and a secure social security. President Trump stands for these instances mentioned. We should make it a must to check voter fraud, so as to make President Trump’s agenda for America a will be event. And our notion for protectionism should be a cornerstone, for as to achieve prosperity void of illegal immigration, and other deformity that do not stand at par with our mode of protectionism.

David - July 7, 2017

Cut off federal funds to any state that will not comply with the federal mandate and cooperate with the investigation.

Robert J Earl - July 7, 2017

Concentrate on states willing to participate in a study of voter irregularities. Get those states to apply existing law to violators and publicize the results.

Tom Lanners - July 7, 2017

Valid State issued picture I.D. In Minnesota where I live, you do not even need I.D. If you have a utility bill and someone vouches for you, you can vote.
This is how Al Franken stole the election the first time he ran.
Minnesota is probably one of the leading States per capita in voter fraud.
I really do not like living here, except for my adorable grandchildren.

Kathleen - July 7, 2017

Voter Fraud I believe is systemic – these are my own (thoughts I have nothing to back this …did you ever notice that not one person says anything about Funeral Directors) this is just commonsense most of them are probably honest due to filling out tax forms but…

Richard Singletary - July 7, 2017


Richard Singletary - July 7, 2017


Barbara Tunget - July 7, 2017

Ok, having been married to a Marine, USMC LT. Col. Retired for 28 & then working at the Naval Air Weapons Center, China Lake for 25 years….I have no clue on how to do this as we were not ‘allowed’ to be political. This is a town of aprox 28,000 people so i think a good place to start would be to check our records to make sure there are no illegals, or dead voting before 2018. So how do i do that? Where do i begin? I’ll send an email to the Mayor to see if she has any ideas.
Yes, a photo ID should be required, that is a must. Let’s just do it!!!
Please do not print my personal info on this, you don’t even need to print my input as info, let’s just do it! This is America right? So let’s just you and I DO IT!

James Schultz - July 7, 2017

National bar coded voter ID’s

Harry Weisberger - July 7, 2017

Reinstate on voter registration forms the inclusion of specific date, state and jurisdiction in which the registrant was born or naturalized. Otherwise, as is the case now, it is difficult if not impossible to verify the citizenship of a registrant.

Sam Wilson - July 7, 2017

Require everyone get a voters I.D. card. You have drivers I.D., insurance I.D., military I.D., social security I.D. and most honest people do not argue about these. All I.D.s should have a photograph. If you are a legal citizen you should have at least 2 of these I.D.s

G. ALLAN BARNES - July 7, 2017

To eliminate voter fraud, 1st require photo I’D and/or fingerprint. 2nd have death certificates made available to voter registration centers. 3rd have at least one year at hard labor for each offence, as the official door prize for violating voter laws. 4th take action that hits home or otherwise gets the point across better, like but not limited to: invalidate drivers licenses, cut welfare/disability payments, student loans, visas, bar them from getting loans, ad infinitum. That should get point across to those who try to game the system. There’s a saying that would say that’s trying to make the point the hard way. However, some people are stubborn, obtuse or down right dishonest and this would address this problem.

Robert S. Allen - July 7, 2017

Before 2020 Primaries, encourage states to mail every registered voter (and federally fund) a return postage paid form to fill out and return showing driver’s license or other ID and signed declaration of US citizenship.
Maybe other info also. Anybody not returning the form would have to vote provisionally.

Jeff J Traylor - July 7, 2017

Require verifiable tamper resistant photo ID for every voter!!

Rita Misero - July 7, 2017

I like what Barnes and Robt. Allen have to say. There is a real problem getting dead people off lists and keeping track of people moving. Maybe voter services should get copies of death certificates. The moving problem—anybody know how that can be solved? That is probably one reason there are duplicate registrations in different states. There should be a national data base. I do door to door stuff and these issues are frustrating–dead people and people moving.

Glenn Nelson - July 7, 2017

Mandatory picture I.D. must be first. Voters should also be required to update their infomation every 2-4 years, which would help to keep the rolls clean. Also, include the True the Vote organization in the federal remedy needed.

thomas getz - July 7, 2017

It is sensible to have voters show a valid form of identification to verify who they are prior to voting, any number of other routine activities require this. Liberals want the maximum number of votes, regardless if they are legal voters or not

Robert S. Licata - July 7, 2017

Force, by law, the registration of all folks who come to the polls or preregister if not, they cannot vote! Pretty simple and don’t accept liberal crap about holding voters of little means from voting! Stop the crap! Truth rules in this country have you forgotten? All polls in the USA should be computerized with no exceptions!

Sinclair Doggett - July 8, 2017

Have everyone apply for an ID card that must be presented before voting. Kill vote by mail, like my state Oregon! ID card can be used for all sorts of things where ID is requested. Drivers licenses don’t have any ID value.

Thomas Schindler - July 8, 2017

First is valid voter ID.

Duane - July 8, 2017

There has to be a method of holding
state gov’t responsible for keeping
the voter registration records up to
date and requiring voter identification
means when voting. Provide means
of transportation to the polls as needed..

Toby Wintersteen - July 8, 2017

Heritage: Needed Voter ID Law Actions and Changes

Ask voters to check and see if their deceased relatives, living non-voters (young, apathetic) in their family, or recently deceased friends are registered both before and after the election OR IF THEIR ID is still active- their ID account should be marked deceased. Proper ID IS A MUST TO REGISTER AND TO VOTE, but ensuring that voter registration docs are marked for current residence and changes in eligibility is important too to prevent other fraud in their name.

Toby Wintersteen - July 8, 2017

But we must also ensure this does not turn into an universal ID system.By restricting info as perhaps confidential, FOUO, need to know or something along those lines.

Robert Small - July 8, 2017

Constitutional amendment. Require each state to certify that voter roles are purged of illegal voters at least every two years and require photo ID at the poles.

Sonie Thompson - July 8, 2017

Here in NC, Voter Integrity Project was formed and found multiple incidents with many inaccuracies in addresses, people who voted twice under different names, fake addresses and old out of date voter lists. Voter ID was repealed in NC! Voting is such an important responsibility, we must have current voter ID, and a task force who uses new technology, like states take care of drivers’ licenses. ID is a must!!!! ID is required for almost all business activities….let’s move into the 21st century.

Robert Hahn - July 8, 2017

Sirs: Hello. Besides getting voter state-certified photo ID for all voters, in every district in every State, please consider working another approach for a U. S. Statute for voter legislation reform, simultaneously. Namely, the Federal Election Commission must make mandatory by U.S. Statute (Federal law), that every State submit a certified confirmation that State is “Voter Photo ID-Compliant”. That confirmation is based on the requirement that all voter districts submit to the State, certification of “Voter Photo ID Compliance” for every registered voter in that district. This is a “top-down” compliance certification. For any State not submitting a certified compliance [all States’ Voter ID Compliance certifications status will be verified by the Federal Election Commission and the Department of Justice], NO Electoral College votes will be counted for that State in a Presidential election and NO “popular votes” counts will be counted for the non-compliant districts in that State. For States not compliant, which means select districts are not compliant, those non-compliant districts will not have votes counted for any Congressional, Senate, and primary elections. With the so-called majority held by the GOP in the House and Senate, NOW is the time to pass this vital legislation that is outlined in this message. Thank you.

June Wilson - July 8, 2017

I would pass a law making it mandatory to have ( Voter ID with your picture). To me,that’s the best way to crack down on voter fraud !

Bonnie Clarke - July 8, 2017

We need to require proof of citizenship before registering or voting. We registered in Florida but there was no requirement to indicate we were citizens. We had drivers licenses as soon as we bought a house here. We could have just as easily registered at that time. There is a process, when you become a citizen, to have your license changed to show you are a citizen so those licenses should be checked at the time of voting digitally.

Robert Laing - July 8, 2017

A majority of the states use voter machines manufactured by a firm owned by George Soros. These machines are most likely programmed to transfer votes from republicans to democrats.

Sherry Hewitt - July 8, 2017

I think it is very important that potential voters show ID. It seems to me that we must update our technology in order to follow the paths of voter fraud.

Marilyn Kirkwold - July 8, 2017

I would have a Federal bill that said that every voter, whether state or federal elections, would have to show a voter ID to cast a vote. There is NO reason why requiring an ID would be against anyone. (I need to show an ID jus to see my doctor!)

Jaime L. Manzano - July 8, 2017

Establish a national identification system, accessible with individual consent, by authorized public needs, e.g., voter eligibility.

Reverend Lydia Lynne Fuller - July 8, 2017

I agree with Jerry Metfcalf.

Robert Appleby - July 8, 2017

Not having read all the comments before making this comment, I hope I am not duplicating. The best that I have heard is to require fingerprint registration, and then use fingerprint machines at the polling station. Finger prints also would work with absentee ballots.

Robert Appleby - July 8, 2017

Of course fingerprints do not address the issue of people registering in multiple states. In high transient areas, the voter rolls are probably not correct around 10% or higher, so it is difficult to maintain voter rolls accurately.

Cheryl Grosser - July 8, 2017

I do mail-in voting so not sure of the current procedure at the polling place. I do know a drivers license is required if enforced. This poses the problem of someone illegal using someone’s else’s name and license and identity, also illegals receive a drivers license or ID. Being the fingerprints and more confidential statistics and data are sent to the Secretary of State from DMV, they need to work together with cooperation in solving this problem. Also Vital Statistics reporting on deaths should be streamlined along with the Secretary of State doing their job. The people in charge of the polling places should be vetted as well. All this should be stream-lined. Remember self-accountability.

Ruth Rasmussen - July 8, 2017

I would do just what the president is doing: check the voter rolls for illegal immigrants, dead people, and multiple registrations, plus voter ID requirements. And may I say, it is about time someone does this!

Stephen Palmer - July 8, 2017

voter identification for every US citizen who wants to vote. No ID no vote

CHARLES FISENNE - July 8, 2017

a commitment at the voting room

Mary Laforet - July 8, 2017

FINALLY!!! This is long overdue!!

Jim bishop - July 8, 2017

Chicago Mayor is superseding all the “valid” photo ID thoughts by developing a city ID card, issued by the City, which can be used to shield the sanctuary status and locally control other uses such as voting, welfare payment card use and many local benefit and welfare programs in use by Illegals and otherwise undocumented payees. This City ID will be used for many unintended situations as supposed verification of Legality and accepted by al lot of uninformed people counting on a gov. ID as worth something – this will become an open and Chicago backed program, so you know it will be very very corrupt. Don’t let this type of ID system start up by the sactuary cities.

Ken Struttmann - July 8, 2017

I agree that a photo ID[ a plastic like credit card] should be used for every voter including a “legitimate” copy of the ID for absentee voters.[ We must use a Medical Card photocopy for our insurance to cover doctor’s visits costs, etc.] I would add an additional feature of requiring the voter to put their ID card into a reader, like we do with our credit cards, that could be verified against a National Voter File. The voter file could be updated daily with information from all the Federal and State Government systems we have, including Social Security, Welfare,Immigration, License Plates and Drivers’ licenses licenses etc. Require that every State transmit their updated voter registration files before elections also. That could be used for absentee ballots.[Note: Many other people have commented regarding updating voter registration files.] I assume that Heritage reads/considers all “comments” . Thanks Heritage. Let’s get it implemented before the next election.

Ken Struttmann - July 8, 2017

One additional item to my comments. Could the “photocopy” be scanned and matched to The National Voter File.?

peter e Bentivegna md - July 9, 2017

support Judicial Watch and get voter ID cards passed in all states. Drivers licence OK My Son has down Syndrrome and has a state ID. Looks like a drivers license and he votes!



Phillip Hermes - July 9, 2017

I would expect that the major voter fraud involves non-citizen Latinos in the US.
I would pick out voter precincts with substantial Latino populations, like in CA or New Carlisle, OH, etc. Then I would check into all the Spanish surnames on the voter lists. Are they Citizens?

william schmidt - July 9, 2017

People who don’t abide by the current election laws should be held accountable, including losing their job for their poor performance. Someone needs to be replaced to follow the laws that govern this issue.

JOHN EMMI - July 9, 2017

No state shall be allowed to register it’s voting results in a federal election without an active documented program of U.S. citizen voter ID requirement.

Carole Dudley - July 9, 2017

The stakes are too high for the future of America to depend on the “honor system.” Of course we must update our voter lists and purge them of the deceased and those who have moved, etc. Who is willing to have his vote negated by a fraudulent voter? Voter I.D. is a necessity for citizens to protect their voting rights and responsibility.

Joel Coulter - July 9, 2017

Dear Ed:

This was written by a friend of mine regarding how the IRS system supports ID Theft for Voter Fraud.

Largest know theft of identity in the USA.

I first learned about the Identity theft of American citizens Social security numbers Two years ago, when I led the Identifiers Group at the FCC TAC. While I was researching a replacement for the current phone number system and looking for a method for a new globally unique identifier system to replace the phone number system. I started off by contacting the other large unique identifier systems such as the SSN, IRS, Voter Registration and the group working on Medical record portability.
What I found surprised me. Instead of finding a solution I found a major problem. First, I found that IRS had changed its software to be able to track multiple people using the same SSN. The IRS software was modified to distinguish the original owner of the SSN as well as to allow others with different names address and different W2’s from different employers to all use the same SSN.
I know from working with the government agencies and OMB that no funds would be given to modify the IRS software to accommodate this illegal theft of Identification. Someone high up at the IRS must have misused funding or reported the software update as something else. There will be a paper work trail to follow and there is a software programmer somewhere that was paid to make these changes.
It keeps getting worse. I next talked to the voter register in Winchester VA. I was informed that through a loop hole in the laws that what they suspected as non-us citizens were registering to vote in order to obtain the necessary two forms of id needed to obtain a Virginia Drivers License.
Currently in Virginia you can register to vote by signing a form swearing that you are a USA citizen and that you have not been convicted of a felony. Then the only check and balance is that they require the voter registration card be mailed to a physical address in that voter district. Once they receive the Voter registration card they can go to DMV with the three stolen SSN and their voter registration card and apply for a Virginia driver’s License.
Once you have a license or government issued photo ID and a voter ID now the non-US citizen or anyone who wants to change their identity can vote in USA elections, Open back accounts, take out loans and buy land and houses. Using this same method, they also have the ability at any time to use a different SSN and establish as many Identities and Voter ID as they chose.
I believe this all started as a way of circumventing the E-verify system. Currently the E-verify only notifies of a duplicate SSN when it is put in by the same employer. The reason for this is to prevent that w2’ business ID number so the same business does not have employees with the same SSN. It would look suspicious if 20 people working at the same MC Donald’s all have the same SSN.
I also think that the IRS also uses the different W2 employer number as a unique identifier as a way of keeping track of the Legal SSN owner and the stolen SSN user.

What to Do with this Information.
First the US Justice department needs announce the start of a massive Identity theft operation to protect American citizens.
Then request the master IRS File the EFS file of all duplicate SSN numbers and there W2 employer ID number.
Cross check and see if they have registered to vote or have obtained a driver’s license or other forms of government Identification.
Then arrest all of those who have illegally obtained voter id card driver license or other forms of government ID.
Then cross check all those with a voter ID to see if they voted in any USA elections.
This would be the largest ever ID theft enforcement operation in USA history.
I assume that most of the people arrested would be Illegal aliens but the investigation would not be aimed at any one group it would be aimed at those who stole SSN numbers and registered to vote or obtain drivers licenses or government ID’s.
My current estimate is that there are close to 15 Million duplicate SSN numbers in the IRS master file.
If only 35% of those using stolen SSN register to vote and voted in the presidential elections that would have amounted to more votes than the difference in the popular vote in the 2016 Presidential elections. 3.5% would be 5.250.000 votes. That is more than enough votes to change the upcoming congressional and senate elections. So, it is very critical that this must be stopped before Imagine what would happen if 50% percent of these non us citizens voted

Judy Wagner - July 9, 2017

As an American I have both the right and duty to vote. It’s how I get to voice my opinion. Only currently registered, legal and alive should get to vote. Photo ID/Voter ID. Those who abuse the system are prohibited from future participation. And, yes, those who wish to control and exert power over the rest of us will oppose all efforts to clean up the system. I liked that suggestion that funeral directors should pass on names. Maybe cemetery overseers should too….

Jim Demonbreun - July 9, 2017

Common sense, like requiring a photo I.D. to vote. Each state must do their part. ( Like any state that won’t shape up there voter I.D. mess, is the new home for all nuclear waste.,HaHa)

Shelley - July 9, 2017

Photo IDs. Drivers licenses. Electronically the IDs should be tracked so they couldn’t use a fraudulent ID with a different address so they could vote at another house poll

Julia Williams - July 10, 2017

Did I hear correctly that California was issuing driver’s licenses to illegals? How can voter ID prevent them from voting? Maybe when registering one has to show proof of citizenship in some manner. I have heard the Social Security numbers are being given to illegals as well! How does one fight that? Please arrest and deport all voter frauds and that might be a deterrent.

Cheryl Grosser - July 10, 2017

The illegals obtain California drivers license but it is different from the legal citizens, how I’m not sure. Some drive without a license or use someone else’s.

David Miller - July 13, 2017

I gathered government data giving numbers of registered voters in each Michigan county then I compare these figures with US census figures of voting-age population, and subtract out census figures of non-citizen voting age population. It turns out that in more than half of Michigan counties, the number of eligible voters exceeds the voting-age citizen population. Michigan has lost control of its voter rolls.
I would like to publish this, and run comparisons for other states, as a way of encouraging a cleanup of the system.

James Schmerbauch - July 14, 2017

Clean the registration rolls periodically.
Require identification at the polls.
Limit early vote by mail to 30 day.s or less.
I vote by mail, but it seems that is an easy way for fraud to succeed.
Forbid automatic voter registration with driver license renewal; voter registration should be a commitment.

Ruby Zwijack - July 15, 2017

Driver’s licenses marked with US citizen vs non-citizen.All other ID’s marked the same.

Phillip Coffman - July 21, 2017

The top recommendation from both the Brennan Center for Justice at the University of New York School of Law and University of Tennessee law professor Glenn Harlan Reynolds is to return, nationwide, to paper ballots and backup paper records. [Sounds old fashion, but I believe it worked in the ‘good ole days.’

Carlo Coura - August 12, 2017

The best way to prevent vote fraud is ELECTION BIOMETRIC SYSTEM.

Mary Nixon - August 12, 2017

I believe that voter fraud is one of the most important issues that we can address in this country. It has been ignored and encouraged by the democrats, as they are the ones who benefit from it. I believe we have to totally change the lax ways we vote and change it by requiring all voters to provide authentic identification. If necessary, it may be that we start over by gutting all current records and require new methods which require all registrants to provide authentic I.D’s. That way the voting dead would be gone along with illegals. A major job, I know, but worth it in my opinion. Our vote should be protected.

Robert - August 12, 2017

Permit no ‘refugee’ to naturalize until they have been a green-card holder for a minimum of 20 years.

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